While old Mother Russia never really grew tea, a couple lands that became part of the Russian empire or USSR did. Georgia, which old Russia incorporated in 1801, opened its first tea plantations sometime in the 1830s. Georgia declared its independence in 1918, but shortly thereafter became a British protectorate until 1921, when the Soviets invaded and installed a puppet government. Unfortunately, the Georgian tea economy largely collapsed in the 1980s due to a combination of bad farming and bad Soviet management. Georgian tea is currently on the rebound, but is difficult to find in America--especially in good loose leaf.
Under Soviet rule, Azerbaijan also began growing tea in 1930 and eventually developed a nice trade. The Soviets also attempted tea growing in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and the Ukraine, but it never really took off in those areas. Azerbaijan still grows tea--and tours of their plantations are apparently a nice tourist draw. Like Georgian tea, though, it's hard to find decent loose leaf varieties in America.